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客车空调机组采用铝合金外壳的优缺点

来源:http://www.jnslshwx.com 日期:2018-08-17 发布人:admin
(1)密度小、重量轻。铝合金的密度约为钢材的三分之一,大大减轻了结构自重,安装轻便,降低劳动力,减少耗能。
(1) small density and light weight. The density of aluminum alloy is about one third of that of steel, which greatly reduces the weight of the structure, eases installation, reduces labor force and energy consumption.
(2)耐腐蚀。暴露在空气中的铝合金能形成一层氧化铝薄膜,这种薄膜具有较强的耐腐蚀性,所以延长了维修周期。
(2) corrosion resistance. Aluminum alloy exposed to air can form a layer of alumina film, which has a strong corrosion resistance, so it prolongs the maintenance cycle.
(3)强度高。通过合金强化以及热处理等加工工艺后,铝合金的强度大大提高,比一般碳素钢的强度还要大。尤其是在低温的环境下,铝合金的强度反而大大增加,成为理想的低温材料。
(3) high strength. After strengthening and heat treatment, the strength of aluminium alloy is greatly improved, which is higher than that of common carbon steel. Especially in the low temperature environment, the strength of aluminum alloy is greatly increased, and it becomes an ideal low temperature material.
(4)延展性能好、挤压成型性较强。铝合金延伸率大能挤压形成复杂的型材,这是热轧和焊接不能达到的。
(4) good ductility and strong extrusion molding ability. Aluminum alloy elongation can be extruded to form complex profiles, which can not be achieved by hot rolling and welding.
(5)外观光泽、有质感。铝合金经过抛光以后,其表面对光有很强的反射能力,还可以通过阳极氧化和电解着色,使铝合金成为良好的装饰材料。
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(5) the appearance is glossy and texture. Aluminum alloy after polishing, its surface has a strong reflection of light, but also through anodic oxidation and electrolytic coloring, so that aluminum alloy becomes a good decorative material.
(6)无磁。铝材料没有磁,正是因为这一特点,被广泛用于航空航天等特殊要求的场所。
(6) non magnetic. Aluminum has no magnetism, and it is precisely because of this characteristic that it is widely used in aerospace and other places with special requirements.
(7)吸收噪音。由于声音在铝材料中无法传播,所以铝材料具有较强的吸收声波的能力。
(7) absorb noise. Because sound can not propagate in aluminum materials, aluminum has strong ability to absorb sound waves.
(8)造价低。铝合金的价格一般低于不锈钢的价格,所以用铝合金替代不锈钢能节约成本。
(8) low cost. The price of aluminum alloy is generally lower than that of stainless steel, so substituting aluminum alloy for stainless steel can save cost.
同时铝合金也有一些缺点,具体缺点如下:
At the same time, aluminum alloy also has some shortcomings, the specific disadvantages are as follows:
(1)弹性模量低。铝合金的弹性模量是钢材的三分之一,因此刚度较小,容易变形,稳定性差,可以通过增大截面的几何刚度弥补这个缺点。
(1) low elastic modulus. The elastic modulus of aluminum alloy is one third of the steel, so the stiffness is small, easy to deformation, poor stability, can be made up by increasing the geometric stiffness of the section.
(2)受温度影响大。铝合金材料的膨胀系数是钢材的两倍,所以铝合金对温度变化更加敏感。在铝合金结构不受约束时,周围环境温度的变化会使铝合金结构发生较大的变形。
(2) being affected by temperature. The expansion coefficient of aluminum alloy is two times that of steel, so aluminum alloy is more sensitive to temperature changes. When the aluminum alloy structure is not restrained, the change of ambient temperature will cause a large deformation of the aluminum alloy structure.
(3)对焊接热影响很敏感。与钢结构的热影响区相比,铝合金的热影响区宽度较大,一般热影响区温度可达到几十毫米,对于热处理合金和加工硬化合金,焊接热影响区内母材的强度显著降低。
(3) it is very sensitive to welding heat effect. Compared with the heat-affected zone of steel structure, the width of heat-affected zone of aluminum alloy is larger, and the temperature of heat-affected zone can reach tens of millimeters in general. For heat-treated alloys and processing hardened alloys, the strength of base metal in heat-affected zone is significantly reduced.
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